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Guide to implementing connectors

After looking at the connector's file structure, let's discuss the implementation and main idea of developing a connector.

We will go through a straightforward example for social and passwordless connectors so that you can build your connector with almost the same idea.

In this part, we are not diving deep into details of specific parameters (such as config) since it is not the point of this guide. Developers who implement new connectors should read documents provided by third-party service vendors, and those documents should elaborate on parameters' in details.

Build a social connectorโ€‹

Let's take GitHub connector as an example.

Most social connectors' authorization flow obeys OAuth Authorization Code Flow.


Majority of the social connectors, obtaining a user profile with end-users' authentication follows a two-step scheme (assume that all steps succeeds):

  1. Start an authentication request and obtain user's authentication.
  2. Fetch accessToken by using a connector vendor granted authCode.
  3. Request for a publicly accessible user profile using accessToken.

In order to accomplish the flow, we need to have following three methods:


getAuthorizationUri generates a redirect URL that can direct end-users to the page need users' authentication.

The interface is defined as GetAuthorizationUri in @logto/connector-kit.

You are allowed to store sign-in-related essential information using setSession (the second input parameter of GetAuthorizationUri) for the sake of getUserInfo method.

Listed parameters are required:

  • authorizationEndpoint can be found in GitHub OAuth doc site, which is the page where end-user should go for authentication
  • config, which includes clientId and clientSecret in GitHub scenario
  • state, a random string to proof CSRF
  • redirectUri of landing page after end-user's successful authentication
const getAuthorizationUri = async ({ state, redirectUri }) => {
const queryParameters = new URLSearchParams({
client_id: config.clientId, // `config` contains your GitHub application credential
redirect_uri: redirectUri,

return `${authorizationEndpoint}?${queryParameters.toString()}`;


getAccessToken gets access token with authorization code issued after end-users successful authentication.

Besides config we mentioned in previous getAuthorizationUri method, we also want to get:

  • authorization code from parameters brought to redirect landing page
  • accessTokenEndpoint, which is the endpoint to get access token with authorization code
const getAccessToken = async (config: GithubConfig, code: string) => {
const { clientId: client_id, clientSecret: client_secret } = config;

const httpResponse = await{
url: accessTokenEndpoint,
json: {
timeout: defaultTimeout,

const result = accessTokenResponseGuard.safeParse(qs.parse(httpResponse.body));

if (!result.success) {
throw new ConnectorError(ConnectorErrorCodes.InvalidResponse, result.error);

const { access_token: accessToken } =;

assert(accessToken, new ConnectorError(ConnectorErrorCodes.SocialAuthCodeInvalid));

return { accessToken };


getUserInfo fetches user information with access token got in previous step.

The interface is defined as GetUserInfo in @logto/connector-kit.

For sign-in purposes, you can retrieve necessary information using the getSession function.

userInfoEndpoint is the endpoint which is used to get user information.

You may check official documents to find specific user information that can be accessed at user info endpoint and corresponding scope.

id assigned by the connector's identity provider (in this case, GitHub) is required; other information is optional. If you can get email or phone from the user profile, MAKE SURE that they are "verified". You also need to align the returning keys with the fields name in Logto user profile.

const getUserInfo = async (
data: { code: string; config: GithubConfig },
getSession: GetSession,
{ set: SetStorageValue, get: GetStorageValue }
) => {
const { code, config } = data;
const { accessToken } = await getAccessToken(config, code);

try {
const httpResponse = await got.get(userInfoEndpoint, {
headers: {
authorization: `token ${accessToken}`,
timeout: defaultTimeout,

const result = userInfoResponseGuard.safeParse(parseJson(httpResponse.body));

if (!result.success) {
throw new ConnectorError(ConnectorErrorCodes.InvalidResponse, result.error);

const { id, avatar_url: avatar, email, name } =;

return {
id: String(id),
avatar: conditional(avatar),
email: conditional(email),
name: conditional(name),
} catch (error: unknown) {
if (error instanceof HTTPError) {
const { statusCode, body: rawBody } = error.response;

if (statusCode === 401) {
throw new ConnectorError(ConnectorErrorCodes.SocialAccessTokenInvalid);

throw new ConnectorError(ConnectorErrorCodes.General, JSON.stringify(rawBody));

throw error;

You can find complete implementation here.

For more details on configurable parameters, see GitHub connector README or GitHub official documents.


The example we've been discussing is based on the OAuth protocol's Authorization Code grant type, which is used in Logto's GitHub connector. However, it's worth highlighting that another grant type, the Implicit grant type, can also be used to retrieve a user's profile, and in fact, provides an access_token directly in the authentication response. Despite this convenience, the Authorization Code grant type is generally recommended over the Implicit type due to its stronger security.

You can also build a connector based on OIDC or some other open protocols, it depends on your use case as well as the compatibility of the social vendor you want to connect to.

Build a passwordless connectorโ€‹

Let's go through the implementation of Aliyun direct mail connector to get the process of building a passwordless connector.

Passwordless connectors are used to send a random code to end-users' email or phone. As a result, a sendMessage method is required.


In order to send message, we need config and endpoint to be correctly set up.

  • endpoint is the endpoint your API calls connect to
  • config contains templates (contents templates for sending passcode in different user flows), clientId and clientSecret (to access to API requests)
const sendMessage = async (data, inputConfig) => {
const { to, type, payload } = data;
const config = inputConfig ?? (await getConfig(;
validateConfig<AliyunDmConfig>(config, aliyunDmConfigGuard);
const { accessKeyId, accessKeySecret, accountName, fromAlias, templates } = config;
const template = templates.find((template) => template.usageType === type);

new ConnectorError(
`Cannot find template for type: ${type}`

const parameters = {
AccessKeyId: accessKeyId,
AccountName: accountName,
ReplyToAddress: 'false',
AddressType: '1',
ToAddress: to,
FromAlias: fromAlias,
Subject: template.subject,
typeof payload.code === 'string'
? template.content.replace(/{{code}}/g, payload.code)
: template.content,

try {
const httpResponse = await request(
{ Action: 'SingleSendMail', ...staticConfigs, ...parameters },

const result = sendEmailResponseGuard.safeParse(parseJson(httpResponse.body));

if (!result.success) {
throw new ConnectorError(ConnectorErrorCodes.InvalidResponse, result.error);

} catch (error: unknown) {
if (error instanceof HTTPError) {
const {
response: { body: rawBody },
} = error;

assert(typeof rawBody === 'string', new ConnectorError(ConnectorErrorCodes.InvalidResponse));


throw error;

const request = async (
url: string,
parameters: PublicParameters & Record<string, string>,
accessKeySecret: string
) => {
const finalParameters: Record<string, string> = {
SignatureNonce: String(Math.random()),
Timestamp: new Date().toISOString(),
const signature = getSignature(finalParameters, accessKeySecret, 'POST');

const payload = new URLSearchParams();

for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(finalParameters)) {
payload.append(key, value);
payload.append('Signature', signature);

headers: {
'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
form: payload,

You can find complete implementation here.

For more details on configurable parameters, see Aliyun direct mail connector README or Aliyun direct mail official documents.

What's more?โ€‹

To see connector methods' definition and build a picture of connector interface design, see @logto/connector-kit. You can also find ConnectorMetadata reference at "Connectors - ConnectorMetadata" and "Connector file structure" can help you figure out how to organize your implementation.

  • A connector's config Zod schema is obligatory for all connectors. This is quite important since we do type check before saving config to DB and calling APIs which requires config information.
  • All SMS connectors and email connectors require a sendMessage method to call service providers message sending APIs using configs from the database. Developers can also reuse this method to send a testing message with unsaved config while setting connectors up in Admin Console.
  • Authorization URL generator getAuthorizationUri and user profile retriever getUserInfo are required for all social connectors (getAccessToken is regarded as an optional step in getUserInfo).
  • All connectors' methods work through API calls, as a result, connector developers need to check documents and handle possible unsuccessful API call responses.

Install your own connectorsโ€‹

We assume that you have already finished building your own connector. Go through following steps to manually install it:

  1. Copy the connector folder you implemented to directory /packages/connectors of logto-io/logto.
  2. Install connector repository's dependencies by typing pnpm pnpm:devPreinstall && pnpm i at root path of logto folder.
  3. Build connector with pnpm connectors:build.
  4. Link local connectors using pnpm cli connector link.
  5. Restart Logto instance with pnpm dev at root directory of logto-io/logto, and you can find connectors successfully installed.

You can now test and try out your connector to see whether it works as expected.

If you want to add connectors that have already been published to NPM or Logto official connectors, you may check out Using Logto CLI - Manage connectors.